The Ottawa Charter identified five key action areas for Health Promotion, the first of which referred to building healthy public policies. However, several studies criticise that expenditure in public health is lower than it should be and the impact of existing wide inequities in health. While a number of reasons have been suggested, there is an urgent need to foster the implementation of health promotion in order to contribute to population¿s health. The aim of this study was to map out the key agents and ingredients for the implementation of health promotion.
A literature review was conducted in Pubmed combining terms such as stakeholders, health promotion and intersectoral action.
Different levels at which key agents or stakeholders were operating were identified in relation to health promotion: macro, meso, and micro levels. There was some variation in stakeholders according to level. Several key concepts were identified that, while related, also suggested a transition between them. This was the case with intersectoral action, health governance, health in all policies and governance for health. Among the key ingredients identified were: health promoting integrated policies and programmes with government leadership, strong legislation, civil society participation and intersectoral decision making. Building community business models, and knowledge brokers appeared to be strategies that showed some promise.
This review has mapped out health promotion stakeholders operating at different levels. Similarly, it has enabled to identify a number of key concepts and strategies as a first step to foster partnerships among the identified stakeholders.
It is vital to identify the stakeholders at different levels in the implementation of health promotion.
Strategies to foster partnerships among stakeholders are required for the implementation of health promotion.