Background: The determinants that mediate the interactions between microRNAs and the gut microbiome impacting on obesity are scarcely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions between circulating microRNAs and gut microbiota composition in obesity. Method: The sample comprised 78 subjects with obesity (cases, body mass index (BMI): 30-40 kg/m(2)) and 25 eutrophic individuals (controls, BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). The expression of 96 microRNAs was investigated in plasma of all individuals using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panels. Bacterial DNA sequencing was performed following the Illumina 16S protocol. The FDR correction was used for multiple comparison analyses. Results: A total of 26 circulating microRNAs and 12 bacterial species were found differentially expressed between cases and controls. Interestingly, an interaction among three miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-21-5p) with Bacteroides eggerthi and BMI levels was evidenced (r(2) = 0.148, p = 0.004). Moreover, these microRNAs regulate genes that participate in metabolism-related pathways, including fatty acid degradation, insulin signaling and glycerolipid metabolism. Conclusions: This study characterized an interaction between the abundance of 4 bacterial species and 14 circulating microRNAs in relation to obesity. Moreover, the current study also suggests that miRNAs may serve as a communication mechanism between the gut microbiome and human hosts.