Nurses' continuing professional development: a systematic literature review
Nurses' continuing professional development (CPD) improves the quality of nursing care, patients' safety, nurses' satisfaction and healthcare costs. However, evidence has shown that nurses do not always participate in their CPD and that CPD does not always address nurses' real needs. To examine this issue, a systematic review of the literature on nurses' experiences regarding their CPD in the clinical context was carried out. The studies selected for this review (n = 9) were analyzed thematically, through which three themes were identified: The relevance of CPD to nurses; the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of nurses to participate in CPD; and the specific needs of nurses to participate in CPD. The findings of this review highlight that nurses' experiences regarding their CPD is a key issue that has not been deeply studied. For nurses, their CPD continues throughout their professional career, and keeping their knowledge and skills up to date is important. The goals, motivations and needs that nurses may have to lead and participate in their CPD may vary according to their age and position. Organizations should consider nurses' specific professional situation as well as their actual needs to boost their CPD through different approaches and enhance nurses¿ retention at hospitals.