A series of thirty-one selenocompounds covering a wide chemical space was assessed for in vitro leishmanicidal activities against Leishmania infantum amastigotes. The cytotoxicity of those compounds was also evaluated on human THP-1 cells. Interestingly most tested derivatives were active in the low micromolar range and seven of them (A.I.3, A.I.7, B.I.1, B.I.2, C.I.7 C.I.8 and C.II.8) stood out for selectivity indexes higher than the ones exhibited by reference compounds mitelfosine and edelfosine. These leader compounds were evaluated against infected macrophages and their trypanothione reductase (TryR) inhibition potency was measured to further approach the mechanism by which they caused their action. Among them diselenide tested structures were pointed out for their ability to reduce infection rates. Three of the leader compounds inhibited TryR effectively, therefore this enzyme may be implicated in the mechanism of action by which these compounds cause their leishmanicidal effect.