Sex-Specific Associations between Gut Prevotellaceae and Host Genetics on Adiposity
The gut microbiome has been recognized as a tool for understanding adiposity accumulation and for providing personalized nutrition advice for the management of obesity and accompanying metabolic complications. The genetic background is also involved in human energy homeostasis. In order to increase the value of nutrigenetic dietary advice, the interplay between genetics and microbiota must be investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and 95 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) searched in the literature. Oral mucosa and fecal samples from 360 normal weight, overweight and obese subjects were collected. Next generation genotyping of these 95 SNPs and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed with 10 SNPs statistically or marginally associated with body mass index (BMI). Several microbiome statistical analyses at family taxonomic level were applied (LEfSe, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, MetagenomeSeq and Random Forest), and Prevotellaceae family was found in all of them as one of the most important bacterial families associated with BMI and GRS. Thus, in this family it was further analyzed the interactive association between BMI and GRS with linear regression models. Interestingly, women with higher abundance of Prevotellaceae and higher GRS were more obese, compared to women with higher GRS and lower abundance of Prevotellaceae. These findings suggest relevant interrelationships between Prevotellaceae and the genetic background that may determine interindividual BMI differences in women, which opens the way to new precision nutrition-based treatments for obesity.