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Effect of changes in adherence to Mediterranean diet on nutrient density after 1-year of follow-up: results from the PREDIMED-Plus Study

Autores: Cano-Ibanez, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Bueno-Cavanillas, A. ; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvado, J. ; Corella, D. ; Freixer, G. L. ; Romaguera, D. ; Vioque, J. ; Alonso-Gomez, A. M. ; Warnberg, J. ; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Serra-Majem, L. ; Estruch, R. ; Tinahones, F. J. ; Lapetra, J. ; Pinto, X. ; Tur, J. A. ; Garcia-Rios, A. ; Garcia-Molina, L. ; Delgado-Rodriguez, M. ; Matia-Martin, P. ; Daimiel, L. ; Martin-Sanchez, V. ; Vidal, J. ; Vazquez, C. ; Ros, E. ; Bartolome-Resano, J. ; Palau-Galindo, A. ; Portoles, O. ; Torres, L. ; Miquel-Fiol. ; Sanchez, M. T. C. ; Sorto-Sanchez, C. ; Moreno-Morales, N. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Alvarez-Perez, J. ; Sacanella, E. ; Bernal-Lopez, M. R. ; Santos-Lozano, J. M. ; Fanlo-Maresma, M. ; Bouzas, C. ; Razquin Burillo, Cristina; Becerra-Tomas, N. ; Ortega-Azorin, C. ; LLimona, R. ; Morey, M. ; Roman-Macia, J. ; Goicolea-Guemez, L. ; Vázquez Ruiz, Zenaida; Barrubes, L.
ISSN: 1436-6207
Volumen: 59
Número: 6
Páginas: 2395 - 2409
Fecha de publicación: 2020
Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity and related manifestations such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide. High energy density diets, usually with low nutrient density, are among the main causes. Some high-quality dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been linked to the prevention and better control of MetS. However, it is needed to show that nutritional interventions promoting the MedDiet are able to improve nutrient intake. Objective To assess the effect of improving MedDiet adherence on nutrient density after 1 year of follow-up at the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods We assessed 5777 men (55-75 years) and women (60-75 years) with overweight or obesity and MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Dietary changes and MedDiet adherence were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. The primary outcome was the change in nutrient density (measured as nutrient intake per 1000 kcal). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to analyse longitudinal changes in adherence to the MedDiet and concurrent changes in nutrient density. Results During 1-year follow-up, participants showed improvements in nutrient density for all micronutrients assessed. The density of carbohydrates (- 9.0%), saturated fatty acids (- 10.4%) and total energy intake (- 6.3%) decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the subset of participants with higher improvements in MedDiet adherence. Conclusions The PREDIMED-Plus dietary intervention, based on MedDiet recommendations for older adults, maybe a feasible strategy to improve nutrient density in Spanish population at high risk of cardiovascular disease with overweight or obesity.