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Proteostasis disturbances and endoplasmic reticulum stress contribute to polycystic liver disease: new therapeutic targets

Autores: Santos-Laso, A.; Izquierdo-Sanchez, L.; Rodrigues, P. M.; Huang, B. Q.; Azkargorta, M. ; Lapitz, A. ; Muñoz-Garrido, P.; Arbelaiz, A.; Caballero-Camino, F. J.; García Fernández de Barrena, Maite; Jiménez-Agüero, R.; Argemí Ballbé, José María; Aragón Amonarriz, Tomás; Elortza, F. ; Marzioni, M.; Drenth, J. P. H.; LaRusso, N. F.; Bujanda, L. ; Perugorría, M. J. (Autor de correspondencia); Bañales Leoz, Jesús María (Autor de correspondencia)
Título de la revista: LIVER INTERNATIONAL
ISSN: 1478-3223
Volumen: 40
Número: 7
Páginas: 1670 - 1685
Fecha de publicación: 2020
Background & Aims Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive development of multiple biliary cysts. Recently, novel PLD-causative genes, encoding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins involved in protein biogenesis and transport, were identified. We hypothesized that aberrant proteostasis contributes to PLD pathogenesis, representing a potential therapeutic target. Methods ER stress was analysed at transcriptional (qPCR), proteomic (mass spectrometry), morphological (transmission electron microscopy, TEM) and functional (proteasome activity) levels in different PLD models. The effect of ER stress inhibitors [4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA)] and/or activators [tunicamycin (TM)] was tested in polycystic (PCK) rats and cystic cholangiocytes in vitro. Results The expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) components were upregulated in liver tissue from PLD patients and PCK rats, as well as in primary cultures of human and rat cystic cholangiocytes, compared to normal controls. Cystic cholangiocytes showed altered proteomic profiles, mainly related to proteostasis (ie synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins), marked enlargement of the ER lumen (by TEM) and hyperactivation of the proteasome. Notably, chronic treatment of PCK rats with 4-PBA decreased liver weight, as well as both liver and cystic volumes, of animals under baseline conditions or after TM administration compared to controls. In vitro, 4-PBA downregulated the expression (mRNA) of UPR effectors, normalized proteomic profiles related to protein synthesis, folding, trafficking and degradation and reduced the proteasome hyperactivity in cystic cholangiocytes, reducing their hyperproliferation and apoptosis. Conclusions Restoration of proteostasis in cystic cholangiocytes with 4-PBA halts hepatic cystogenesis, emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy.