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Biomarkers and clinical characteristics of autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria: Results of the PURIST Study

Autores: Schoepke, N. ; Asero, R.; Ellrich, A. ; Ferrer Puga, Marta; Gimenez-Arnau, A. ; Grattan, C. E. H.; Jakob, T. ; Konstantinou, G. N.; Raap, U. ; Skov, P. S. ; Staubach, P. ; Kromminga, A.; Zhang, K.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Daschner, A.; Kinaciyan, T. ; Kno, E. F.; Makris, M.; Marrouche, N.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Sussman, G. ; Toubi, E. ; Church, M. K. ; Maurer, M. (Autor de correspondencia)
Título de la revista: ALLERGY
ISSN: 0105-4538
Volumen: 74
Número: 12
Páginas: 2427 - 2436
Fecha de publicación: 2019
Background Autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria (aiCSU) is an important subtype of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in which functional IgG autoantibodies to IgE or its high-affinity receptor (Fc epsilon RI) induces mast cell degranulation and subsequent symptom development. However, it has not been tightly characterized. This study aimed to better define the clinical and immunological features and to explore potential biomarkers of aiCSU. Methods This was a multinational, multicenter study of 182 CSU patients. The clinical features studied included: urticaria activity and impact (UAS7 and quality of life); autologous serum skin test (ASST); IgG anti-Fc epsilon RI and IgG anti-IgE; IgG-anti-thyroperoxidase (IgG anti-TPO); total serum IgE; and basophil reactivity (BASO) using the basophil activation test (BAT) and basophil histamine release assay (BHRA). Results Of the 182 patients, 107 (59%) were ASST+, 46 (25%) were BASO+, and 105 (58%) were IgG anti-Fc epsilon RI+/IgE+. Fifteen patients (8%) fulfilled all three criteria of aiCSU. aiCSU patients appeared more severe (UAS7 21 vs 9 P < 0.016) but showed no other clinical or demographic differences from non-aiCSU patients. aiCSU patients also had markedly lower total IgE levels (P 0.0001) and higher IgG anti-TPO levels (P 0.001). Of biomarkers, positive BAT and BHRA tests were 69% and 88% predictive of aiCSU, respectively. Conclusions aiCSU is a relatively small but immunologically distinct subtype of CSU that cannot be identified by routine clinical parameters. Inclusion of BHRA or BAT in the diagnostic workup of CSU patients may aid identification of aiCSU patients, who may have a different prognosis and benefit from specific management.