Considerable progress in developing flat-rolled steel grades has been made by the Chinese steel industry over the recent two decades. The increasing demand for high-performance products to be used in infrastructural projects as well as in production of consumer and capital goods has been driving this development until today. The installation of state-of-the-art steel making and rolling facilities has provided the possibility of processing the most advanced steel grades. The production of high-performance steel grades relies on specific alloying elements of which molybdenum is one of the most powerful. China is nearly self-sufficient in molybdenum supplies. This paper highlights the potential and advantages of molybdenum alloying over the entire range of flat-rolled steel products. Specific aspects of steel property improvement with respect to particular applications are indicated.