Background: the aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features of patients undergoing pancreatic surgical resections due to cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. Material and methods: demographic data, form of presentation, radiologic images and location of the tumors within the pancreas were analyzed. Data was also collected on the type of surgery (open/laparoscopic), postoperative complications and their severity and oncologic outcomes. Results: eighty-two pancreatic resections were performed. The mean age of patients was 57 years and 49 (59%) were female. Forty-one tumors (50%) were incidental and the most frequent symptoms in the group of symptomatic patients were abdominal pain (63.4%) and weight loss (36.5%). Thirty-two tumors (39%) were located in the tail of the pancreas, 25 (30.5%) in the head and 20 (24.4%) in the body. Thirty-nine (47.5%) distal pancreatectomies, 16 central, ten duodenal pancreatectomies and one enucleation were performed; 40 (48.5%) were carried out laparoscopically. Mean hospital stay was ten days and eight patients (7%) experienced severe complications, one was a pancreatic fistula. Sixty-six tumors (80.5%) were recorded as non-invasive and 16 (19.5%) as invasive: seven intraductal mucinous papillary tumors, one cystic mucinous tumor, four solid pseudopapillary tumors and four cystic neuroendocrine tumors. There was a median follow-up of 64 months; disease-free survival at five and ten years was 97.4% in the patients with non-invasive tumors and 84.6% and 70.5% in the invasive tumors group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: fifty percent of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are incidental. Two phenotypes exist, invasive and non-invasive.