Hypofractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma and poor prognostic factors. A prospective, single-institution experience
Background Hypofractionated radiation therapy is a feasible and safe treatment option in elderly and frail patients with glioblastoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypofractionated radiation therapy with concurrent temozolomide in terms of feasibility and disease control in primary glioblastoma patients with poor prognostic factors other than advanced age, such as post-surgical neurological complications, high tumor burden, unresectable or multifocal lesions, and potential low treatment compliance due to social factors or rapidly progressive disease. Material and methods GTV included the surgical cavity plus disease visible in T1WI-MRI, FLAIR-MRI and in the MET-uptake. The CTV was defined as the GTV plus 1.5-2 cm margin; the PTV was the CTV+0.3 cm margin. Forty, fourty-five, and fifty grays in 15 fractions were prescribed to 95% of PTV, CTV, and GTV, respectively. Treatment was delivered using IMRT or the VMAT technique. Simultaneously, 75 mg/m(2)/day of temozolomide were administered. Results Between January 2010 and November 2017, we treated a total of 17 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 68-years; median KPS was 50-70%. MGMT-methylation status was negative in 5 patients, and 8 patients were IDH-wildtype. Eight of 18 patients were younger than 65-years. Median tumor volume was 26.95cc; median PTV volume was 322cc. Four lesions were unresectable; 6 patients underwent complete surgical resection. Median residual volume was 1.14cc. Progression-free survival was 60% at 6 months, 33% at 1-year and 13% at 2-years (median OS = 7 months). No acute grade 3-5 toxicities were documented. Symptomatic grade 3 radiation necrosis was observed in one patient. Conclusions Patients with poor clinical factors other than advanced age can be selected for hypofractionated radiotherapy. The OS and PFS rates obtained in our series are similar to those in patients treated with standard fractionation, assuring good treatment adherence, low rates of toxicity and probable improved cost-effectiveness.