Huttunen-Lenz, M. (Autor de correspondencia); Hansen, S.; Christensen, P.; Larsen, T. M.; Sando-Pedersen, F.; Drummen, M.; Adam, T. C.; Macdonald, I. A.; Taylor, M. A.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
; Navas Carretero, Santiago
; Handjiev, S. ; Poppitt, S. D.; Silvestre, M. P.; Fogelholm, M.; Pietilainen, K. H.; Brand-Miller, J.; Berendsen, A. A. M. ; Raben, A.; Schlicht, W.
Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of >= 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2))individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss ("achievers") and those who did not ("non-achievers"). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between "achievers" (1,857) and "non-achievers" (163) were found. "Non-achievers" tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, "achievers" reported higher intentions (healthy eating chi(2)((1))=2.57; P < 0.008, exercising chi(2)((1))=0.66; P < 0.008), self-efficacy (F-(2;1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F-(4; 1968)=11.22, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the "new" behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.