Resumen: Industry 4.0 has become the main source of applications of the Internet of Things (IoT),
which is generating new business opportunities. The use of cloud computing and artificial
intelligence is also showing remarkable improvements in industrial operation, saving
millions of dollars to manufacturers. The need for time-critical decision-making is
evidencing a trade-off between latency and computation, urging Industrial IoT (IIoT)
deployments to integrate fog nodes to perform early analytics. In this chapter, we review
next-generation IIoT architectures, which aim to meet the requirements of industrial
applications, such as low-latency and highly reliable communications. These architectures
can be divided into IoT node, fog, and multicloud layers. We describe these three
layers and compare their characteristics, providing also different use-cases of IIoT architectures.
We introduce network coding (NC) as a solution to meet some of the requirements
of next-generation communications. We review a variety of its approaches as
well as different scenarios that improve their performance and reliability thanks to this
technique. Then, we describe the communication process across the different levels of the
architecture based on NC-based state-of-the-art works. Finally, we summarize the benefits
and open challenges of combining IIoT architectures together with NC techniques.