Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects ABA metabolism during berry ripening in Vitis vinifera L. cv. tempranillo grown under climate change scenarios.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a promising tool for improving the quality of grapes under changing environments. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine if the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to enhance phenolic content (specifically, anthocyanins) in a climate change framework could be mediated by alterations in berry ABA metabolism during ripening. The study was carried out on fruit-bearing cuttings of cv. Tempranillo (CL-1048 and CL-1089) inoculated (+M) or not (¿M) with AMF. Two experimental designs were implemented. In the first experiment +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14¿°C or 28/18¿°C (day/night)) from fruit set to berry maturity. In the second experiment, +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14¿°C or 28/18¿°C (day/night)) combined with two irrigation regimes (late water deficit (LD) and full irrigation (FI)). At 28/18¿°C AMF contributed to an increase in berry anthocyanins and modulated ABA metabolism, leading to higher ABA-GE and 7¿OH-ABA and lower phaseic acid (PA) in berries compared to ¿M plants. Under the most stressful scenario (LD and 28/18¿°C), at harvest +M plants exhibited higher berry anthocyanins and 7¿OH-ABA and lower PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) levels than ¿M plants. These findings highlight the involvement of ABA metabolism into the ability of AMF to improve some traits involved in the quality of grapes under global warming scenarios.