Is oxidative stress involved in the sex-dependent response to ochratoxin A renal toxicity?
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin considered the most powerful renal carcinogen in rodents and classified as a possible human carcinogen. Though its mechanism of action is still unknown, indirect DNA reactivity mediated by oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play an important role. Moreover, large sex-differences have been observed in carcinogenicity studies, male rats being more sensitive than females. Male and female F344 rats were administered (p.o.) with bicarbonate or 0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w. for 7 days; or with bicarbonate, 0.21 or 0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w. for 21 days. Total glutathione (tGSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, glutathione S.transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were analysed in kidneys. The standard alkaline comet assay was used in combination with Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) to detect oxidized DNA bases in kidney. No biologically relevant sex-differences were observed in all the oxidative-stress related parameters analysed. Indeed, no relevant oxidative-stress related response was observed between treated animals and controls. In accordance with the similar OTA levels and histopathological changes between both sexes observed previously in the same animals, and with other oxidative-stress related parameters measured by others, results support that there are no differences between sexes in the oxidative stress response to OTA.