Oaknin, A.; Guarch, R.; Barretina, P.; Hardisson, D.; González Martín, Antonio
; Matias-Guiu, X.; Pérez-Fidalgo, A.; Vieites, B.; Romero, I.; Palacios, J.
Because of advances in the understanding of histological and molecular characteristics in ovarian cancer, it is now possible to recognize the existence of five subtypes, which in turn has allowed a more refined therapeutic approach and better design of clinical trials. Each of these five subtypes has specific histological features and a particular biomarker expression, as well as mutations in different genes, some of which have prognostic and predictive value. CA125 and HE4 are examples of ovarian cancer biomarkers used in the diagnosis and follow-up of these malignancies. Currently, somatic or germinal mutations on BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most important biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer having prognostic and predictive value. This article will review the histological and molecular characteristics of the five subtypes of ovarian cancer, describing the most important biomarkers and mutations that can guide in diagnosis, screening and tailored treatment strategy.