A series of 16 new diselenide-acylselenourea conjugates have been designed following the fragment-based drug strategy. Compound in vitro cytotoxic potential was evaluated against six human cancer cell lines and two nonmalignant derived cell lines with the aim of determining their potency and selectivity. Nine derivatives exhibited GI(50) values under 10 mu M in at least four cancer cell lines. A clear gap situated phenyl substitution over heterocyclic moieties in terms of selectivity. Among carbocyclic compounds, derivatives 2 and 7 significantly inhibited cell growth of breast adenocarcinoma cells with GI50 values of 1.30 and 0.15 nM, respectively, with selectivity indexes 12 and 121 times higher than those obtained for doxorubicin. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that compounds 2 and 7 induce cell cycle arrest and autophagy-dependent cell death evidenced by the blockage of cell death with pretreatment with wortmannin or chloroquine and confirmed by the upregulation of the markers Bedinl and LC3B in MCF-7 cells.