BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
A precise nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia involves the understanding of the interactions between the individual's genotype and dietary intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the response to two dietary energy-restricted interventions on cholesterol changes in carriers of two ADRB2 polymorphisms.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A 4-month nutritional intervention was conducted involving two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. A total of 107 unrelated overweight/obese individuals were genotyped for two ADRB2 non-synonymous polymorphisms: Arg16Gly (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were phenotypically screened. Anthropometric measurements and the biochemical profile were assessed by conventional methods. Both diets induced cholesterol decreases at the end of both nutritional interventions. Interestingly, phenotypical differences were observed according to the Arg16Gly polymorphism. Within the MHP group, Gly16Gly homozygotes had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-6.5 mg/dL vs. -24.2 mg/dL, p = 0.009), LDL-c levels (-1.4 mg/dL vs. -16.5 mg/dL, p = 0.005), and non-HDL-c (-4.5 mg/dL vs. -21.5 mg/dL, p = 0.008) than Arg16 allele carriers. Conversely, within the LF group, Gly16Gly homozygotes underwent similar falls in total cholesterol (-18.5 mg/dL vs. -18.7 mg/dL, ns), LDL-c levels (-9.7 mg/dL vs. -13.1 mg/dL, ns), and non-HDL-c (-15.3 mg/dL vs. -15.7 mg/dL, ns) than Arg16 allele carriers. The Gln27Glu polymorphism and the Gly16/Glu27 haplotype showed similar, but not greater effects.
An energy-restricted LF diet could be more beneficial than a MHP diet to reduce serum cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c among Gly16Gly genotype carriers. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Identifier: NCT02737267.