Guide for current nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic approaches for precision nutrition involving the prevention and management of chronic diseases associated with obesity
Chronic diseases, including obesity, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in most countries. The adverse impacts of obesity and associated comorbidities on health remain a major concern due to the lack of effective interventions for prevention and management. Precision nutrition is an emerging therapeutic approach that takes into account an individual's genetic and epigenetic information, as well as age, gender, or particular physiopathological status. Advances in genomic sciences are contributing to a better understanding of the role of genetic variants and epigenetic signatures as well as gene expression patterns in the development of diverse chronic conditions, and how they may modify therapeutic responses. This knowledge has led to the search for genetic and epigenetic biomarkers to predict the risk of developing chronic diseases and personalizing their prevention and treatment. Additionally, original nutritional interventions based on nutrients and bioactive dietary compounds that can modify epigenetic marks and gene expression have been implemented. Although caution must be exercised, these scientific insights are paving the way for the design of innovative strategies for the control of chronic diseases accompanying obesity. This document provides a number of examples of the huge potential of understanding nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic roles in precision nutrition.