The ability to self-regulate behavior is one of the most important protective factors in relation with resilience and should be fostered especially in at-risk youth. Previous research has characterized these students as having behaviors indicating lack of foresight. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothetical relationship between these personal variables. It was hypothesized that self-regulation would be associated with and would be a good predictor of resilience, and that low-medium-high levels of self-regulation would lead to similar levels of resilience. The participants were 365 students-aged 15 and 21- from Navarre (Spain) who were enrolled in Initial Vocational Qualification Programs (IVQP). For the assessment, the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ) were applied. We carried out linear association analyses (correlational and structural) and non-linear interdependence analyses (MANOVA) between the two constructs. Relationships between them were significant and positive. Learning from mistakes (self-regulation) was a significant predictor of coping and confidence, tenacity and adaptation, and tolerance to negative situations (resilience). Likewise, low-medium-high levels of self-regulation correlated with scores on resilience factors. Implications of these results for educational practice and for future research are discussed.