Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus have had classically an important impact in morbidity and mortality in the nosocomial and community scene. The description of methicillin resistance among nosocomial isolates of S. aureus and his widespread diffusion has become methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in one of the most common causes of bacterial nosocomial infections. In the last years MRSA strains have also emergence in the community. This together with a progressive increase in resistance to antibiotics used classically has become vancomycin in the treatment of choice in most cases according to clinical guidelines. As a result, a progressive rise in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to vancomycin has been reported. In this context strains with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin (MIC 8-4 mg/L) and heteroresistance have been noted. These strains are associated with a higher risk of treatment failure when using vancomycin. Among isolates of S. aureus susceptible to vancomycin there has been described stains with elevated MICs (¿1.5 mg/L). It is controversial if the presence of these strains has an impact on clinical outcome if treatment with vancomycin or ß-lactams is prescribed. The development of new antibiotics with activity against MRSA and exploring synergies offer a promising alternative to treatment with vancomycin.