The CXCR4/SDF1 axis improves muscle regeneration through MMP-10 activity
The CXCR4/SDF1 axis participates in various cellular processes, including cell migration, which is essential for skeletal muscle repair. Although increasing evidence has confirmed the role of CXCR4/SDF1 in embryonic muscle development, the function of this pathway during adult myogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In addition, a role for CXCR4 signaling in muscle maintenance and repair has only recently emerged. Here, we have demonstrated that CXCR4 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) are up-regulated in injured muscle, suggesting their involvement in the repair process. In addition, we found that notexin-damaged muscles showed delayed muscle regeneration on treatment with CXCR4 agonist (AMD3100). Accordingly, small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of SDF1 or CXCR4 in injured muscles impaired muscle regeneration, whereas the addition of SDF1 ligand accelerated repair. Furthermore, we identified that CXCR4/SDF1-regulated muscle repair was dependent on matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) activity. Thus, our findings support a model in which MMP-10 activity modulates CXCR4/SDF1 signaling, which is essential for efficient skeletal muscle regeneration.