Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an acute neurological disorder with high mortality and no effective treatment. In addition to the initial bleeding event, rebleeding and hematoma expansion are associated with poor outcome in these patients. We studied the effectiveness of the new antifibrinolytic agent CM352, a short-half-life matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, for achieving early hemostasis and improving functional recovery in a rat model of collagenase-induced ICH.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
ICH was induced by striatal injection of collagenase, and 1 hour later, rats received an intravenous injection of saline (n=6) or CM352 (1 mg/kg, n=6). Hematoma (basal and after 3 and 24 hours) and lesion (14 days) volumes were quantified on T2-weighted (T2) magnetic resonance images. Neurological and functional recovery was evaluated by using Bederson score and a cylinder test (basal, 24 hours, and 14 days). Early treatment (1 hour) with CM352 was efficient reducing hematoma expansion at 3 hours (P<0.01) and, more markedly, at 24 hours (P<0.01). Decreased bleeding after antifibrinolytic treatment was accompanied by reduced interleukin-6 levels at 3 hours (P<0.05) and smaller lesion volume at 14 days (P<0.01). CM352 drastically reduced sensorimotor impairment (cylinder test) after ICH in rats at 24 hours (P<0.01) and 14 days (P<0.01). Similarly, it also attenuated neurological deficit (Bederson scale) at 24 hours (P<0.01) and 14 days (P<0.01). Interestingly, late (3 hours) CM352 administration also resulted in reduced lesion size and better functional outcome.
CM352, a new antifibrinolytic agent and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, effectively prevented hematoma growth and reduced lesion size in ICH in association with improved functional and neurological recovery.