Risk factor assessment and counselling for 12 months reduces metabolic and cardiovascular risk in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the CRESSOB study
Metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) have been associated with patients with schizophrenia. The main objective is to assess the evolution of CRF and prevalence of MS for 12 months in a cohort of overweight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder in which the recommendations for the assessment and control of metabolic and cardiovascular risk were applied.
The Control of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Schizophrenia and Overweight (CRESSOB) study is a 12-month, observational, prospective, open-label, multicentre, naturalistic study including 109 community mental health clinics of Spain. The study included a total of 403 patients, of whom we could collect all variables related to CRF and MS in 366 patients. Of these 366 patients, 286 completed the follow-up, (baseline, months 3, 6 and 12) where they underwent a complete physical examination and a blood test (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), they were asked about their health-related habits (smoking, diet and exercise) and they were given a series of recommendations to prevent cardiovascular risk and MS.
A total of 403 patients were included, 63% men, mean age (mean; (SD)) 40.5 (10.5) years. After 12 months, the study showed statistically significant decrease in weight (p<0.0001), waist circumference (p<0.0001), BMI (p<0.0001), blood glucose (p=0.0034), total cholesterol (p<0.0001), HDL cholesterol (p=0.02), LDL cholesterol (p=0.0023) and triglycerides (p=0.0005). There was a significant reduction in the percentage of smokers (p=0.0057) and in the risk of heart disease at 10 years (p=0.0353).
Overweight patients with schizophrenia who receive appropriate medical care, including CRF monitoring and control of health-related habits experience improvements with regard to most CRFs.