Influence of brewing method and acidity regulators on the antioxidant capacity of coffee brews
The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews prepared with different coffeemakers (filter, plunger, mocha, and espresso) was measured by colorimetric (total phenolic compounds and ABTS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy techniques (Fremy's salt and TEMPO). The mocha coffeemaker had the highest yield in coffee antioxidant extraction per gram of ground roasted coffee, but espresso coffee was richest in terms of antioxidant intake (per milliliter of coffee brew) followed by mocha, plunger, and filter. Both Folin-Ciocalteu (total phenolic compounds) and ABTS assays reacted with standard solutions of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and melanoidins (MO-Ala and MO-Gly). However, Fremy's salt was mainly scavenged by chlorogenic acids, whereas the stabilized radical TEMPO was effectively scavenged by melanoidins, but not by chlorogenic acids. Thus, ESR spectroscopy allows distinguishing between phenolic and nonphenolic antioxidants. Moreover, the addition of pH-regulator agents to coffee, such as sodium carbonate (75 ppm) and bicarbonate (75 ppm), to extend its shelf life, slightly increases the pH, modifying the antioxidant capacity in those coffee brews with the highest capacity (mocha and espresso).