The aim of this work was to study the potential of pegylated poly(anhydride) nanoparticles as carriers for the oral delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). Paclitaxel is an anticancer drug, ascribed to the class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification system, characterised for its low aqueous solubility and to act as a substrate of the P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450. For the pegylation of nanoparticles, three different poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used: PEG 2000 (PTX-NP2), PEG 6000 (PTX-NP6) and PEG 10,000 (PTX-NP10). The transport and permeability of paclitaxel through the jejunum mucosa of rats was determined in Ussing chambers, whereas its oral bioavailability was studied in rats. The loading of PTX in pegylated nanoparticles increased between 3 and 7 times the intestinal permeability of paclitaxel through the jejunum compared with the commercial formulation Taxol. Interestingly, the permeability of PTX was significantly higher for PTX-NP2 and PTX-NP6 than for PTX-NP10. In the in vivo studies, similar results were obtained. When PTX-NP2 and PTX-NP6 were administered to rats by the oral route, sustained and therapeutic plasma levels of paclitaxel for at least 48 h were observed. The relative oral bioavailability of paclitaxel delivered in nanoparticles was calculated to be 70% for PTX-NP2, 40% for PTX-NP6 and 16% in case of PTX-NP10. All of these observations would be related with both the bioadhesive properties of these carriers and the inhibitory effect of PEG on the activity of both P-gp and P450 cytochrome.