Neuroimaging using both functional and structural examinations like positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic nuclear imaging (MRI) provide supportive information of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with central nervous system disorders. Therefore, they have become commonplace in clinical practice and basic biomedical research. In recent years we have seen the development of multimodality equipment that enables PET or SPECT to be combined with a CT structural image. Moreover, experimental equipment combining PET and MRI has now been developed. Additionally, methodological features that provide a higher image quality, and analysis tools for objective quantification and interpretation have been refined. This article reviews the technical aspects of those imaging methods, highlighting the most significant and recent advances in the development of neuroimaging.