A social and intellectual conflict was waged between Catholics and secularists in Spain at the turn of the 20th century. In 1910, following forty long years of struggle, women were finally granted access to the university system. This fact positioned women at the heart of the dispute between the two competing schools of thought, both of which supported the intellectual development of women as an essential part of their respective educational projects for political and social renewal. Nonetheless, the vision of women held on both sides fell far short of recognizing the suitability of women for participation in public life. On the basis of a close reading of the research literature in this field (84 works), this article shows that the educational projects advanced by both groups were remarkably similar, given that each drew on similar prejudices regarding women.