Background: The prognosis of non-cutaneous malignancies after liver transplantation is dismal, mainly because most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. In the last decade, studies have shown the potential role of screening for lung cancer with low-radiation dose computed tomography.
Material/Methods: Fifty-nine liver transplant recipients with a cumulative dose of smoking greater than 10 pack-years were enrolled in a lung cancer screening program using yearly low-radiation dose computed tomography.
Results: Lung cancer was diagnosed in 7 patients (11.8%), 5 of which were in stage Ia at diagnosis. Patients with lung cancer were significantly older (median age 66 vs. 58 years), had a higher cumulative history of smoking, and had emphysema more frequently than patients without cancer.
Conclusions: Screening for lung cancer with low-radiation dose computed tomography in liver transplant recipients results in the diagnosis of lung cancer in early stages.