Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a hepatic metabolic disease that results from haplo-insufficient activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The dominant clinical feature is acute intermittent attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endocrine or exogenous factors. Gene therapy vectors over-expressing PBGD protein in the liver offers potential as a cure for AIP. Here, we developed a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDA) encoding human PBGD (hPBGD) and assessed its therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of AIP. Intravenous or intrahepatic administration of HDA-hPBGD to AIP mice resulted in a sustained hepatic hPBGD expression in a dose-dependent manner. Intrahepatic administration conveyed full protection against induced porphyria attacks at a significantly lower viral dose than intravenous injection. Transgenic hPBGD accumulated only in the cytosol of hepatocytes as the endogenous protein. Characterization of PBGD-deficient mouse strains revealed that a strong PBGD deficiency causes the chronic disturbance of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum folding machineries. This disturbance was completely restored over time by the over-expression of hPBGD. HDA-hPBGD is a promising vector that protects against porphyria attacks and resolves the chronic folding stress associated with low levels of PBGD activity.