To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles as carriers for oral drug/antigen delivery.
Three types of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles were assayed: conventional (NP), nanoparticles containing 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (NP-HPCD) and nanoparticles coated with poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 (PEG-NP). Nanoparticles were prepared by a desolvation method and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and morphology. For in vivo oral studies, acute and sub-acute toxicity studies were performed in rats in accordance to the OECD 425 and 407 guidelines respectively. Finally, biodistribution studies were carried out after radiolabelling nanoparticles with (99m)technetium.
Nanoparticle formulations displayed a homogeneous size of about 180 nm and a negative zeta potential. The LD50 for all the nanoparticles tested was established to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw. In the sub-chronic oral toxicity studies at two different doses (30 and 300 mg/kg bw), no evident signs of toxicity were found. Lastly, biodistribution studies demonstrated that these carriers remained in the gut with no evidences of particle translocation or distribution to other organs.
Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (either conventional or modified with HPCD or PEG6000) showed no toxic effects, indicating that these carriers might be a safe strategy for oral delivery of therapeutics.