Co-Occurrence of Type-a and Type-B Trichothecenes in Barley From a Northern Region of Spain
In this survey, 123 barley samples from a northern region of Spain (Navarra) have been analyzed for co-occurrence of eight type-A and type-B trichothecenes (DON, NIV, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, FUS-X, T-2, HT-2 and DAS). Samples were classified according to place and year of harvest (2007 and 2008), type of farming (organic or traditional) and variety of barley. The rains during anthesis had a great influence on the trichothecene levels, observing higher contaminations in samples collected during 2008. In addition, type-A trichothecenes tend to be more present in cooler areas, while type-B appears more often in warmer regions. The type of farming has not led to significant differences in mycotoxins levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and contamination in traditional samples has been observed. On the other hand, it was observed that Pewter, the favorite barley variety for the malting industry in Spain, has been the most susceptible to contamination with trichothecenes. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.