CapsuleWhite-throated Dippers from southern Europe were found to be infected by three haemosporidians. AimsTo examine the occurrence of blood parasites in dippers in the Iberian Peninsula and to investigate the relationship between prevalence levels, environmental factors and bird fitness. MethodsWhite-throated Dippers were trapped with mist-nets from five montane areas in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Parasites were detected from blood samples by polymerase chain reaction screening. ResultsAbout half (51.3%) of 152 dippers showed some kind of infection. The genusHaemoproteuswas recorded in 49.3% of the birds, and the genusLeucocytozoonin 19.1%, whilePlasmodiumwas present only in 0.7%. Among the infected birds, 34.6% carried a double infection (Haemoproteus¿+¿Leucocytozoon). Prevalence did not differ between gender or age-classes, but it varied between study sites, being significantly higher in mountains with higher precipitation. There was a reduction in body mass owing to double infection in yearling males only. ConclusionThis is the first work assessing parasite prevalence in dippers from southern Europe. Infection of dippers by haemosporidians is likely to be related to a study site's climatic envelope.