Several gene therapeutic approaches have been proposed to add to current antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1. U1 interference (U1i) is a promising new gene therapy tool that targets mRNAs with modified U1 snRNAs. For efficient inhibition, the 3¿-terminal exon of pre-mRNAs must be recognized by the modified U1 snRNA. Subsequent interaction between the U1-associated 70K protein and poly(A) polymerase leads to inhibition of polyadenylation and consequently degradation of the pre-mRNA. We designed 14 new U1i inhibitors against HIV-1 mRNA regions that are 100% complementary to at least 70% of HIV-1 sequences listed in the HIV database. All U1i inhibitors were tested transiently in HIV-1 production assays as well as luciferase reporter experiments and three candidates were examined further in stably lentivirus-transduced T cell lines. We identified U1i-J that targets the region encoding the NF-¿B binding sites as the most effective inhibitor that substantially reduced viral protein expression. The potency of J is determined in part by the presence of a duplicated target within the HIV-1 mRNA. The stably transduced SupT1 T cells were challenged with HIV-1 but no antiviral effect was detected. U1i inhibitors can be potent suppressors of HIV-1 production in transient assays but further optimization of this antiviral approach is needed.