Type of alcoholic beverage and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project
Objective: The effects of alcohol on body weight might be modulated by the total amount of alcohol intake and type of alcoholic beverage. However, available results are contradictory. There is a scarcity of studies on this topic in Mediterranean areas where wine consumption is high. We prospectively evaluated the association between the type of alcoholic beverage intake and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort.
Methods: We followed for an average of 6.1 y 9318 adults without previous chronic disease at baseline. Validated data on diet including alcohol consumption were collected at baseline. Weight was recorded at baseline and updated every 2 y during follow-up. The outcomes were average weight gained every year and incidence of overweight/obesity after a 6-y follow-up.
Results: During follow-up, 1006 incident cases of overweight/obesity were identified in participants with normal weight at baseline. Beer and spirits consumption (>= 7 drinks/wk) was associated with a +119 g/y (95% confidence interval +27 to +212) higher average yearly weight gain after adjusting for relevant confounders. It was also associated with a higher risk of developing overweight/obesity compared with non-drinkers. No association between wine consumption and yearly weight change or the risk of developing overweight/obesity was apparent.
Conclusion: The type of alcoholic beverage can modulate the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of developing overweight/obesity.