To address the feasibility of implementing a lung cancer screening program in liver transplant recipients (LTR) targeted to detect early-stage lung cancer one hundred twenty-four LTR (89% male, 59.8+/-8.8 y old), who entered the lung cancer screening program at our hospital were reviewed. The results of the diagnostic algorithm using low-dose CT and F-18-fluorodeoxyglycose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were analyzed. Lung cancer was detected in 12 LTR (9.7%), most of which corresponded to the non-small cell subtype. Two of the 12 lung cancers were detected in the baseline study (prevalence of 1.6%), whereas 10 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer in the follow-up (incidence of 8.1%). Considering all cancers, 10 of 12 (83.3%) were diagnosed at stage I, one cancer was diagnosed at stage IIIA, and another one at stage IV. The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of F-18-fluorodeoxyglycose positron emission tomography to detect malignancy in our cohort were 81.8%,100%, 99.3%, 100%, and 99.3%, respectively. A carefully followed multidisciplinary lung cancer screening algorithm in LTR that includes F-18-fluorodeoxyglycose positron emission tomography and low-dose CT allows lung cancer to be diagnosed at an early stage while reducing unnecessary invasive procedures.