Zamanillo-Campos, R.; Chaplin, A.; Romaguera, D. (Autor de correspondencia); Abete Goñi, Itziar
; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Martín, V.; Estruch, R.; Vidal, J.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel
; Babio, N.; Fiol, F.; de Paz, J. A.; Casas, R.; Olbeyra, R.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
; García-Gavilán, J. F.; Goday, A.; Fernández Lázaro, Cesar Ignacio
; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
; Hu, F. B.; Konieczna, J.
Background & aims: The quality of dietary carbohydrates rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the accumulation of visceral fat; however, to date, few studies have examined the impact of diet on adiposity using specific imaging techniques. Thus, the aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between concurrent changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and objectively-quantified adiposity distribution over a year. Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 1476 participants aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake information was obtained at baseline, 6- and 12-months from a validated 143-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and CQI (range: 4 to 20) was calculated based on four dietary criteria: total dietary fibre, glycemic index, wholegrain/total grain carbohydrate ratio, and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. Overall and regional adiposity (total body fat, visceral fat and android-to-gynoid fat ratio) was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at all three time points. Multiple adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations between concurrent changes in repeatedly measured CQI and adiposity over time. Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, a 3-point increment in CQI over 12-month follow-up was associated with a decrease in visceral fat (beta-0.067 z-score, 95% CI-0.088;-0.046, p < 0.001), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (-0.038,-0.059;-0.017, p < 0.001), and total fat (-0.064,-0.080;-0.047, p < 0.001). Fibre intake and the ratio of wholegrain/total grain showed the strongest inverse associations with all adiposity indicators. Conclusions: In this prospective cohort of older adults with overweight/obesity and MetS, we found that improvements in dietary carbohydrate quality over a year were associated with concurrent favorable changes in visceral and overall fat deposition. These associations were mostly driven by dietary fibre and the wholegrain/total grain ratio.Trial registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized.