Interleukin-12 is considered a potent agent to enhance antitumor immune responses. It belongs to a family of heterodimeric cytokines with key roles in the up-regulation and down-regulation of cellular immunity. Since its discovery, recombinant IL-12 was found to exert potent antitumor effects in rodent tumor models and was rapidly tested in the clinic with an unfavorable benefit/toxicity profile. Localized delivery of IL-12 dramatically improves the therapeutic index and this approach is being applied in the clinic based on in-vivo electroporation of naked plasmid DNA encoding IL-12, mRNA formulations, viral vectors and tumor-targeted fusion proteins. Other biotechnology strategies such as IL-12-engineered local adoptive cell therapy and pro-cytokines can also be used to improve results and broaden the therapeutic window. Combination strategies of such localized IL-12-based approaches with checkpoint inhibitors are yielding promising results both preclinically and in the early-phase clinical trials.