Wrong surgery (wrong-site, wrong-procedure, or wrong-patient surgery) is among the most feared patient safety problems in hospitals. We aimed to evaluate associations between numeric assessment of risk assigned to wrong surgery with that of other healthcare quality and patient safety challenges. This nationwide study collected information from healthcare quality experts in charge of a clinical quality and/or patient safety department in general hospitals of >= 150 beds in Spain. Out of the 100 included hospitals, the highest strength of associations were observed with risk priority number (RPN) for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, RPN for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients, RPN for incorrect patient identification, RPN for lack of informed consent for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, RPN for catheter-related bacteremia, and RPN for adverse events and injuries due to medical devices related to use and/or design. These results are of potential interest for designing combined and coordinated strategies to improve patient safety in hospitals.