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Associations between exploratory dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes: a federated meta-analysis of individual participant data from 25 cohort studies

Autores: Jannasch, F. (Autor de correspondencia); Dietrich, S.; Bishop, T. R. P.; Pearce, M.; Fanidi, A.; O'Donoghue, G.; O'Gorman, D.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Vollenweider, P.; Bes Rastrollo, Maira; Byberg, L.; Wolk, A.; Hashemian, M.; Malekzadeh, R.; Poustchi, H.; Luft, V. C.; Alvim de Matos, S. M.; Kim, J.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, Y.; Stern, D.; Lajous, M.; Magliano, D. J.; Shaw, J. E.; Akbaraly, T.; Kivimaki, M.; Maskarinec, G.; Le Marchand, L.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Soedamah-Muthu, S. S.; Wareham, N. J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Schulze, M. B.
ISSN: 1436-6207
Volumen: 61
Número: 7
Páginas: 3649 - 3667
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Purpose In several studies, exploratory dietary patterns (DP), derived by principal component analysis, were inversely or positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, findings remained study-specific, inconsistent and rarely replicated. This study aimed to investigate the associations between DPs and T2D in multiple cohorts across the world. Methods This federated meta-analysis of individual participant data was based on 25 prospective cohort studies from 5 continents including a total of 390,664 participants with a follow-up for T2D (3.8-25.0 years). After data harmonization across cohorts we evaluated 15 previously identified T2D-related DPs for association with incident T2D estimating pooled incidence rate ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) by Piecewise Poisson regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Results 29,386 participants developed T2D during follow-up. Five DPs, characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, French fries and refined grains, were associated with higher incidence of T2D. The strongest association was observed for a DP comprising these food groups besides others (IRRpooled per 1 SD = 1.104, 95% CI 1.059-1.151). Although heterogeneity was present (I-2 = 85%), IRR exceeded 1 in 18 of the 20 meta-analyzed studies. Original DPs associated with lower T2D risk were not confirmed. Instead, a healthy DP (HDP1) was associated with higher T2D risk (IRRpooled per 1 SD = 1.057, 95% CI 1.027-1.088). Conclusion Our findings from various cohorts revealed positive associations for several DPs, characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, French fries and refined grains, adding to the evidence-base that links DPs to higher T2D risk. However, no inverse DP-T2D associations were confirmed.