Resumen: Climate change constitutes an important driver affecting food sector, and consequently represents a public health issue that deserves particular attention. Under this context, mycotoxins emerge as a particular concern since their prevalence and concentrations in food and feed may vary due to climatic conditions. Aflatoxins, the most toxic mycotoxins, present a particular concern, taking into account the potential health effects arising from human and animal exposure. The present article aims to answer two main questions: Are aflatoxins a concern in the Iberian Peninsula? How the climate change could impact aflatoxins contamination and the risk of human exposure in Iberian Peninsula?