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One-year changes in fruit and vegetable variety intake and cardiometabolic risk factors changes in a middle-aged Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk

Autores: López-González, L.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Babio, N. (Autor de correspondencia); Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Nishi, S. K.; Corella, D.; Goday, A.; Romaguera, D.; Vioque, J.; Alonso-Gómez, A. M.; Warnberg, J.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Serra-Majem, L.; Estruch, R.; Bernal-López, M. R.; Lapetra, J.; Pinto, X.; Tur, J. A.; López-Miranda, J.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Matía-Martín, P.; Daimiel, L.; Martín-Sánchez, V.; Vidal, J.; Vázquez, C.; Ros, E.; Vázquez Ruiz, Zenaida; Martín-Lujan, F. M.; Sorlí, J. V.; Castañer, O.; Zulet Alzórriz, María de los Ángeles; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Carabaño-Moral, R.; Román-Macia, J.; Rayo, E.; García-Ríos, A.; Casas, R.; Gómez-Pérez, A. M.; Santos-Lozano, J. M.; Buil Cosiales, Pilar; Asensio, E. M.; Lassale, C.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Salaverria-Lete, I.; Sayon Orea, María del Carmen; Schroder, H.; Salas-Salvadó, J. (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN: 0954-3007
Volumen: 76
Número: 10
Páginas: 1393 - 1402
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Background and aims Previous studies have shown beneficial associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, variety in FV, which may play an important role on cardiovascular health due to the different nutrient and phytochemical content among the different groups and subgroups of FV has been poorly investigated. We longitudinally investigated associations between 1-year changes in variety and quantity of FV and concurrent changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in elderly subjects with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods a one-year data longitudinal analysis of 6647 PREDIMED-plus study participants (48% women) was conducted. Data were collected at baseline, six months and 1-year of follow-up. Variety and quantity of FV were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and continuous scores for variety were created based on items/month of FV. Linear mixed-models adjusted for potential confounders were performed to estimate associations (beta-coefficients and 95% confidence interval) between 1-year changes in FV variety and/or quantity and concurrent changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Two points increment in the FV variety score over one year was associated with a concurrent decrease in glucose (-0.33 mg/dL (0.58, -0.07)), body weight (-0.07 kg (-0.13, -0.02)) and waist circumference (WC) (-0.08 cm (-0.16, -10.01)). An increment of 100 g/d of FV over one year was associated with a concurrent decrease in triglycerides (-0.50 mg/dL (-0.93, -0.08)), glucose (-0.21 mg/dL (-0.32, -0.11)), body weight (-0.11 kg (-0.15, -0.07)) and WC (-0.10 cm (-0.14, -0.06)) over 1-year. Changes in FV consumption which led to higher quantity and variety over one year were associated with downward changes in glucose (-1.26 mg/dL (-2.09, -0.43)), body weight (-0.40 kg (-0.58, -0.23)) and WC (-0.50 cm (-0.73, -0.28)). Conclusion Greater variety, in combination with higher quantity of FV was significantly associated with a decrease in several cardiometabolic risk factors among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.