With a growing number of predictive biomarkers needed to manage patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there has been a paradigm shift in care and handling of diagnostic samples. Among the various testing methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most cost- effective and widely available. Furthermore, over the past decade immunotherapy has emerged as one of the most promising cancer treatments. In this scenario IHC is the most used testing method available for PDL-1/PD1 immunotherapy. Several monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathways have been integrated into standard-of-care treatments of a wide range of cancer types, once provided evidence of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Since currently available PD-L1 assays have been developed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) histological specimens, a growing body of research is being dedicated to confirm the feasibility of applying PDL-1 assays also to cytological samples. Albeit promising results have been reported, several important issues still need to be addressed. Among these are the type of cytological samples, pre-analytical issues, cyto-histological correlation, and inter-observer agreement. This review briefly summarizes the knowledge of the role of cytopathology in the analysis of PD-L1 by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and future directions of cytopathology in the immunotherapy setting.