Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative synergistic effect of vitamin D and nutritional complex on retinal pigment epithelial and endothelial cell lines against age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease of the retina featured by dysfunction of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) and loss of photoreceptor cells under oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions. Vitamin D and antioxidants have beneficial effects against retinal degenerative diseases, such as AMD. We investigated the impact of associating vitamin D (ND) with a nutritional antioxidant complex (Nutrof Total(R); N) on oxidative stress and inflammation-like induced conditions by H2O2 and LPS, respectively, in human retinal epithelial (ARPE-19) and human retinal endothelial (HREC) cells. Application of either N or ND treatments to H2O2-induced media in ARPE-19 cells counteracted late apoptosis, attenuated oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation. Significant reduction in the expression levels of MCP1, IL-8, and IL6 cytokines was observed following application of either N or ND treatments under LPS-induced conditions in ARPE-19 cells and in MCP-1 and IL12p70 cytokine levels in HREC cells. ND and not N revealed significant downregulation of IFN gamma in ARPE-19 cells, and of IL-6 and IL-18 in HREC cells. In conclusion, adding vitamin D to Nutrof Total(R) protects in a synergistic way against oxidative and inflammatory stress-induced conditions in retinal epithelial and endothelial cells.