Immune checkpoint blockade using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) able to block programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 axis represents a promising treatment for cancer. However, it requires repetitive systemic administration of high mAbs doses, often leading to adverse effects. We generated a novel nanobody against PD-1 (Nb11) able to block PD-1/PD-L1 interaction for both mouse and human molecules. Nb11 was cloned into an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector downstream of four different promoters (CMV, CAG, EF1 alpha, and SFFV) and its expression was analyzed in cells from rodent (BHK) and human origin (Huh-7). Nb11 was expressed at high levels in vitro reaching 2-20 micrograms/mL with all promoters, except SFFV, which showed lower levels. Nb11 in vivo expression was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after intravenous administration of AAV8 vectors. Nb11 serum levels increased steadily along time, reaching 1-3 microgram/mL two months post-treatment with the vector having the CAG promoter (AAV-CAG-Nb11), without evidence of toxicity. To test the antitumor potential of this vector, mice that received AAV-CAG-Nb11, or saline as control, were challenged with colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38). AAV-CAG-Nb11 treatment prevented tumor formation in 30% of mice, significantly increasing survival. These data suggest that continuous expression of immunomodulatory nanobodies from long-term expression vectors could have antitumor effects with low toxicity.