Recent studies have revealed the critical role of several microRNAs (miRNAs) in energy homeostasis and metabolic processes and suggest that circulating miRNAs can be used as early predictors of weight loss in the design of precision nutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate circulating adiposity-related miRNAs as biomarkers of the response to two specific weight loss dietary treatments. The expression of 86 miRNAs was investigated in plasma of 78 subjects with obesity randomized to two different diets [moderately high-protein diet (n = 38) and low-fat diet (n = 40)] and in 25 eutrophic controls (BMI <= 25 kg/m(2)). Bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore the target genes and biological pathways regulated by the dysregulated miRNAs. As results, 26 miRNAs were found differently expressed in eutrophic and volunteers with obesity. Moreover, 7 miRNAs (miR-130a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-144-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-29c-3p) were differentially expressed between responders and non-responders to a low-fat diet. Furthermore, after adjustment for basal glucose levels, 1-SD increase in miR-22-3p expression was associated with reduction in the risk of non-response to low-fat diet [OR = 0.181, 95% CI (0.084-0.947), P = .043]. Bioinformatic analyses evidenced that these 7 miRNAs regulate the expression of genes participating in important metabolic pathways. Conclusively, 7 circulating miRNAs related to adiposity could be used for predicting the response to a low-fat diet intervention prescribed to lose weight.