Background: The proinflammatory state induced by obesity plays an important role in obesity-related metabolic complications.
Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with ¿-lipoic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), separately or in combination, could improve inflammatory and cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women consuming an energy-restricted diet.
Methods: Within the context of the Effects of Lipoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Human Obesity (OBEPALIP) study, Caucasian women (n = 73) aged 20¿50 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) between 27.5 and 40 consumed an energy-restricted diet for 10 wk after being randomly assigned to 1 of 4 parallel experimental groups: a control group or groups supplemented with 1.3 g EPA/d, 0.3 g LA/d, or both. Secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. These included circulating inflammatory [C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemerin, haptoglobin, amyloid A, and leukocytes] and cardiovascular disease risk markers (platelet count and circulating apelin, asymmetric dimethylarginine, vascular endothelial growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1). Gene expression of IL6, adhesion G protein¿coupled receptor E1 (ADGRE1), interleukin 10 (IL10), chemokine (C¿C motif) ligand 2, and adiponectin was measured in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies at endpoint.
Results: Supplementation with LA caused a greater reduction in some circulating inflammatory risk markers, such as CRP (¿0.13 ± 0.07 mg/dL compared with 0.06 ± 0.07 mg/dL, P < 0.05) and leukocyte count (¿0.74 ± 0.18 × 103/mm3 compared with 0.06 ± 0.18 × 103/mm3, P < 0.01), than in the groups that were not supplemented with LA. In contrast, the fall in apelin concentrations that accompanied weight loss was less pronounced in groups that were supplemented with LA (¿1.1 ± 4.9 pg/mL) than in those that were not (¿21.3 ± 4.8 pg/mL, P < 0.01). In adipose tissue, compared with those who did not receive EPA, EPA-supplemented groups exhibited a downregulation of ADGRE1 (0.7 ± 0.1¿fold compared with 1.0 ± 0.1¿fold) (P < 0.05) and an upregulation of IL10 (1.8 ± 0.2¿fold compared with 1.0 ± 0.2¿fold) (P < 0.05) gene expression.
Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with LA improves some systemic inflammatory and cardiovascular disease¿related risk markers in healthy overweight or obese women independently of weight loss, whereas EPA modulates inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01138774.