Differential Effects of Self- vs. External-Regulation on Learning Approaches, Academic Achievement, and Satisfaction in Undergraduate Students
The aim of this research was to determine the degree to which undergraduate
students¿ learning approach, academic achievement and satisfaction were determined
by the combination of an intrapersonal factor (self-regulation) and a interpersonal
factor (contextual or regulatory teaching). The hypothesis proposed that greater
combined regulation (internal and external) would be accompanied by more of a deep
approach to learning, more satisfaction and higher achievement, while a lower level of
combined regulation would determine a surface approach, less satisfaction and lower
achievement. Within an ex post facto design by selection, 1036 university students
completed validated questionnaires using an online tool. Several multivariate analyses
were conducted. Results showed that the combination of self-regulation and external
regulation can be ordered as levels along a five-point scale or heuristic. These levels
linearly determine type of learning approach, academic achievement and satisfaction.
Implications are established for quality and improvement of the teaching and learning
process at university.