The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of Maresin 1 (MaR1), a DHA-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator, on obesity-related colonic inflammation and gut dysbiosis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In colonic mucosa of DIO mice, the MaR1 treatment decreased the expression of inflammatory genes, such asTnf-alpha andIl-1 beta. As expected, the DIO mice exhibited significant changes in gut microbiota composition at the phylum, genus, and species levels, with a trend to a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Deferribacteres and Synergistetes also increased in the DIO animals. In contrast, these animals exhibited a significant decrease in the content of Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Treatment with MaR1 was not able to reverse the dysbiosis caused by obesity on the most abundant phyla. However, the MaR1 treatment increased the content ofP. xylanivorans, which have been considered to be a promising probiotic with healthy effects on gut inflammation. Finally, a positive association was found between the Deferribacteres andIl-1 beta expression, suggesting that the increase in Deferribacteres observed in obesity could contribute to the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa. In conclusion, MaR1 administration ameliorates the inflammatory state in the colonic mucosa and partially compensates changes on gut microbiota caused by obesity.