Continuous intraocular pressure monitoring in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using a contact lens sensor
Purpose To analyse nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and to identify associations between the OSAS parameters determined by polysomnographic study (PSG) and IOP changes. Method Prospective, observational study. Twenty participants suspected of having OSAS were recruited. During PSG study, IOP was monitored using a CLS placed in the eye of the patient. The patients were classified according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in two categories, severe (> 30) or mild/moderate (< 30) OSAS. We evaluated several parameters determined by the IOP curves, including nocturnal elevations (acrophase) and plateau times in acrophase (PTs) defined by mathematical and visual methods. Results The IOP curves exhibited a nocturnal acrophase followed by PTs of varying extents at which the IOP remained higher than daytime measurement with small variations. We found significant differences in the length of the PTs in patients with severe OSAS compared to those with mild/moderate disease (P = 0.032/P = 0.028). We found a positive correlation between PTs and OSAS severity measured by the total number of apneic events (r = 0.681/ 0.751 P = 0.004/0.001) and AHI (r = 0.674/0.710, P = 0.004/0.002). Respiratory-related arousal and oxygen saturation also were associated significantly with the IOP PT length. Conclusions Periods of nocturnal IOP elevation lasted longer in severe OSAS patients than those with mild/moderate OSAS and correlate with the severity of the disease. The length of the nocturnal PT is also associated to respiratory parameters altered in patients with OSAS.